1 – “Pampa” Region:
The original soil composition coupled with the damp and temperate climate prevailing in the region and a permanent prairie-type vegetation has produced typical humus soil and its brown-black prairie variety (in the West) and chestnut-color prairie variety (in the South). These highly fertile, easy to cultivate soils with practically no stones, spread over such a large flatland, have made the “Pampa” one of the world’s prime agricultural regions.
The Pampa covers some 60 million hectares, 90% of which is suitable for agriculture and livestock breeding and the remaining 10% for livestock breeding only.
The climate is typically temperate, there is practically no winter in terms of temperature (meaning with daily temperatures of less than 10° C) and the summer (with daily temperatures of over 20° C) is short. The average mean temperature is 17° C and rainfall ranges between 1,000 mm. in the East and 800 mm. in the West, evenly distributed throughout the year, with no clearly-defined dry season. Ground water is generally good, plentiful and depth to groundwater is shallow.
This set of characteristics makes it a region with the best possible conditions for large winter crops (wheat, oats, barley, rye, etc.) and especially for supplemental-ration livestock (there is good-quality grass the year round). The areas with the required amount of rainfall in spring and summer are used to grow maize, sunflower, peanuts, sorghum and soya.
The sub-regions of the Humid Pampa are the following (according to the classification used in the Production Regions map):
A Area – Influenced by Buenos Aires: high real estate prices and very good land, especially to the north of the city.
C Area – Agricultural Center: it is the agricultural heart of the region and boasts all characteristics required for production: soil, climate, rainfall, and infrastructure, thus producing excellent harvests.
D Area – Agricultural area, Sea and Hills. An area with excellent soil which, with the introduction of the latest production technology, has become the second agricultural center. It is also an area of natural beauty as it is one of the two regions in the Pampa with varied landscape: the Tandilia Hill System and the Atlantic coastline.
E Area – Mixed agricultural area: located in the center of the province of Buenos Aires, with high production levels, where excellent-quality land alternates with livestock breeding areas.
F Area – Central agricultural area: another of the areas with extremely high production levels. It comprises the eastern central region of the province of Córdoba, the southern central region of the province of Santa Fe and the south of Entre Ríos. It is perhaps the area where land ownership is most subdivided.
G Area – Western agricultural area: Following the increased rainfall in the last 20 years and the introduction of technology, this area is no longer used for fattening cattle and has become the new focal point of agricultural production. It comprises the West of the Province of Buenos Aires, the South of the Province of Córdoba and the East of the province of La Pampa.
H Area – Southeastern agricultural area: located in the south of the province of Buenos Aires, it is the main wheat-growing region. It also boasts the natural beauty of the Ventania hill system.
K Area – Salado river basin: it is the central depression of the province of Buenos Aires. These are very good and highly productive livestock breeding areas. There are also some highlands, with good agricultural production.
I Area – Western transition area: this is the Western end of the Humid Pampa and, as its name indicates, it is an area with lower rainfall which is now used for cattle fattening.
2 – Mesopotamia:
This region is characterized by its temperate and subtropical climate with no dry season, fertile soil, gently rolling land and many rivers and streams.
B Area – Delta: this is the Paraná River Delta, formed for the most part by countless islands in the river between the provinces of Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, and along the southern coast of Entre Ríos. These are livestock-breeding areas, with high grass production and at risk of floods from the Paraná River.
F Area – Central Agricultural area: from the point of view of production, this area belongs to the Humid Pampa and was already described under that heading; part of it is located in Mesopotamia.
O Area – Southern Mesopotamia. These are the areas where we find the typical vertisol soils of Mesopotamia. They are suitable for agriculture and livestock breeding. They have an excellent rainfall. The Uruguay River corridor is one of the largest fruit and lumber production areas in Argentina.
P Area – Northern Mesopotamia: this is a livestock-producing area, with significant forestry activities. Agriculturally, it is the area with the greatest rice production in Argentina, thanks to its water resources.
S Area – Rainfall Forest jungle: High temperatures, plentiful and persistent humidity and varied land forms result in a very particular compact and very deep clayey soil. These lands are especially suitable for forestry species, mate, tea and tung.
3 – Northern Region:
I Area – Northwestern agricultural area. This is a hill-supported sector making up a green wedge resting on the Andean foothills and the Aconquija. With its 700 km in length and 80 Km in width, it constitutes a humid microclimate, with rainfall of up to 1,000 mm. Main products are soybean, corn, sugar cane, tobacco and tropical fruit.
J Area – Central and Northern agricultural area: this is one of the regions in Argentina that have developed the most over the last few years. Because of the quality of its soil, its rainfall and the introduction of new technology, soya crops have grown dramatically. Cotton is the traditional crop of the region.
M Region – Central transition area. This is an area with less rainfall than the previous one, but ground water and water from dams make it possible to grow crops using irrigation.
Q Area – Central-southern lowlands. This wedge-shaped area is located in the center of the Province of Santa Fe and the south of the province of Chaco. It is a depression with ground suitable for livestock.
T Area – Semi-arid northern central area: located between the two northern agricultural areas, this area has less rainfall, making it less suitable for agriculture. A new cattle-raising model based on subtropical pastures is being developed in this area, with very good results.
4 – Western Region
N Area – Arid transition area. It mostly comprises the province of San Luis and the central strip of the province of La Pampa. Rainfall here is less than 600 mm a year, and it is mostly used for breeding livestock.
U Area – Arid area. This is a semi-desert area characterized by the lack of rainfall. Vines, olives, cotton and nuts are planted in the damper regions, with excellent results.
W Area – Valleys. The Cuyo region, with over 200,000 hectares of vineyards, produces 90% of Argentine wines, totaling over 20 million hectoliters and making Argentina the world’s fourth largest wine producer. Quality wine exports have soared by over 200% in the last five years.
5 – Patagonia Region
V Area – Central Patagonia: The stony ground, high winds and the cold prevent the development of homogeneous vegetation. Natural pastures make this area suitable for sheep farming on a large scale.
W Area – Valleys: these are the exceptions within the previous area and are the river valleys where extremely fertile alluvial soil forms, protected from the wind and sustained by the humidity. These valleys are the most important fruit-producing region in Argentina.
Y Area – Humid Andean Patagonia: Damp winds from the Pacific cause torrential rains, giving rise to a strip of very valuable conifer forests. The intense humidity and abundant organic material create forest floors that are typical of cold regions.
This area has an inestimable real estate value from the tourism point of view, with extensive skiing areas and large national parks suitable for trekking, fishing and, in summer, for mountain-climbing.
X Area – Malvinas Islands